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Table 1 Overview of clinical health variables in captive African elephants and Asian elephants

From: Clinical health issues, reproductive hormones, and metabolic hormones associated with gut microbiome structure in African and Asian elephants

Clinical health variable Definition African (n = 61) Asian (n = 38)
Body Condition Score (BCS) Scoring system to assess physical condition; 1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest [16] Categorical
BCS 3 n = 4
BCS 4 n = 29
BCS 5 n = 28
Categorical
BCS < 3 n = 3
BCS 3 n = 5
BCS 4 n = 7
BCS 5 n = 23
Gastrointestinal (GI) Issues Occurrence of colic, bloat, or abnormal feces within 6 weeks prior to fecal sample used in microbial analyses [15] Categorical
Y: n = 8
N: n = 53
Categorical
Y: n = 3
N: n = 35
Lameness/stiffness Record of reduced range of motion, favoring one or more limb, abnormal gait within 6 weeks prior to fecal sample used in microbial analyses [15] Categorical
Y: n = 5
N: n = 56
Categorical
Y: n = 7
N: n = 31
Antibiotics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Record of antibiotics or NSAIDs administered within 6 weeks prior the fecal sample used in microbial analyses [2] Categorical—Not included in analyses due to sample size
Y: n = 0
N: n = 61
Categorical
Y: n = 3
N: n = 35
Age The age of the elephant (in years) on date medical record review began [15] Continuous
Range: 26–52
Median: 33
Mean: 33.9
Continuous
Range: 22–52
Median: 41
Mean: 40.0
Zoo Zoo facility where elephant was housed during EWS [15] Categorical
n = 22
Categorical
n = 25
  1. This table details the clinical health variables assessed in a subset of zoos with two or more elephants